Familiarity with Radiography and Radiology

What is Radiography?

Radiography is the precise art of imaging the structures of the mouth, jaw, and face and examining their geometric and spatial relationships with each other.

What is radiology?

Radiology is the knowledge of using radiography for interpreting the normal and abnormal conditions of the structures of the mouth, jaw, and face.

Why Do We Need Radiography?
  • Patient Selection and Screening
  • Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
  • Reassessment and Disease Progression Monitoring
  • Determining Pre-Advertisement Disease Status and Treatment
Is it possible that I may need various types of radiography?


Many radiographic examinations are essential to complement each other’s information, and depending on the prescription, one or several radiographs may be required simultaneously.

Is having a radiography harmful?

Radiographic imaging methods based on X-rays have potential side effects on the body that can vary significantly depending on the types of imaging and the received radiation dose.

The radiation exposure from dental radiographic examinations is within safe limits compared to the radiation exposure we receive from our natural environment, and the potential side effects are minimal. For this reason, in the field of medicine, radiographic imaging is used as a screening method only in two cases, which include:

  • Dentistry
  • Mammography
How can diagnostic radiation dose be reduced?
  • Choosing the Appropriate Imaging Method
  • Performing Precise Imaging Techniques
  • Using Appropriate Radiation Protection Methods

Common Types of Radiography Used in Dentistry

Intraoral plain radiography

Intraoral Radiography includes periapical, bitewing, and occlusal radiography. Its applications are as follows:

  • High-precision examination of teeth and surrounding structures.
  • Examination of caries and periodontal diseases status.
  • Assessment of the quality of previous treatments.
  • Examination of incurred dental injuries.
  • Assessment of pulp status and related diseases.
  • Examination of impacted and supernumerary teeth.
  • Pre-extraction assessments.
  • Simple salivary gland examination.
Simple extraoral radiography

Simple extraoral radiography includes panoramic, cephalometric views, and temporomandibular joint imaging. Its applications are as follows:

  • Overall assessment of dental and jaw conditions.
  • Examination of foreign bodies and injuries to teeth, jaws, and the face.
  • Assessment of the growth and development of the oral-facial complex.
  • Examination of jaw lesions.
  • Examination of diseases affecting the growth and development of teeth and jaws.
  • Initial assessment of conditions affecting the maxillary sinus and teeth.
  • Examination of temporomandibular joint disorders.
  • Examination of the oral and dental condition (patients with limited mouth opening).
  • Initial assessment of dental and maxillofacial injuries.
Advanced and three-dimensional radiography

Advanced and three-dimensional radiography, including CBCT, ultrasound, MRI. Its applications are as follows:

  • Accurate and three-dimensional assessment prior to various facial and jaw surgeries.
  • Face
  • Accurate and three-dimensional assessment prior to dental and facial implant surgeries.
  • Assessment of cysts, tumors, and lesions in the head and neck.
  • Assessment of temporomandibular joint disorders, paranasal sinuses, and salivary glands diseases.
  • Post-surgery assessments for improvement or recurrence examination.